Ready to deal with your drug abuse problem? This step-by-step guide can help you cope with cravings, deal with relapse, and overcome your substance use disorder.
The first step to overcoming drug abuse and addiction
Developing an addiction to drugs isn’t a character flaw or a sign of weakness, and it takes more than willpower to overcome the problem. Abusing illegal or certain prescription drugs can create changes in the brain, causing powerful cravings and a compulsion to use that makes sobriety seem like an impossible goal. But recovery is never out of reach, no matter how hopeless your situation seems or how many times you’ve tried and failed before. With the right treatment and support, change is always possible.
For many people struggling with addiction, the toughest step toward recovery is the very first one: recognizing that you have a problem and deciding to make a change. It’s normal to feel uncertain about whether you’re ready to start recovery, or if you have what it takes to quit. If you’re addicted to a prescription drug, you may be concerned about how you’re going to find an alternate way to treat a medical condition. It’s okay to feel torn. Committing to sobriety involves changing many things, including:
- the way you deal with stress
- who you allow in your life
- what you do in your free time
- how you think about yourself
- the prescription and over-the-counter medications you take
It's also normal to feel conflicted about giving up your drug of choice, even when you know it's causing problems in your life. Recovery requires time, motivation, and support, but by making a commitment to change, you can overcome your addiction and regain control of your life.
Think about change
- Keep track of your drug use, including when and how much you use. This will give you a better sense of the role the addiction is playing in your life.
- List the pros and cons of quitting, as well as the costs and benefits of continuing your drug use.
- Consider the things that are important to you, such as your partner, your kids, your pets, your career, or your health. How does your drug use affect those things?
- Ask someone you trust about their feelings on your drug use.
- Ask yourself if there's anything preventing you from changing. What could help you make the change?
Preparing for change: 5 keys to addiction recovery
- Remind yourself of the reasons you want to change.
- Think about your past attempts at recovery, if any. What worked? What didn't?
- Set specific, measurable goals, such as a start date or limits on your drug use.
- Remove reminders of your addiction from your home, workplace, and other places you frequent.
- Tell friends and family that you're committing to recovery, and ask for their support.
Explore your addiction treatment options
Once you've committed to recovery, it's time to explore your treatment choices. While addiction treatment can vary according to the specific drug, a successful program often includes different elements, such as:
Detoxification. Usually the first step is to purge your body of drugs and manage withdrawal symptoms.
Behavioral counseling. Individual, group, and/or family therapy can help you identify the root causes of your drug use, repair your relationships, and learn healthier coping skills.
Medication may be used to manage withdrawal symptoms, prevent relapse, or treat any co-occurring mental health condition such as depression or anxiety.
Long-term follow-up can help to prevent relapse and maintain sobriety. This may include attending regular in-person support groups or online meetings to help keep your recovery on track.
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|Types of drug treatment programs|
Residential treatment – Residential treatment involves living at a facility and getting away from work, school, family, friends, and addiction triggers while undergoing intensive treatment. Residential treatment can last from a few days to several months.
Day treatment/Partial hospitalization – Partial hospitalization is for people who require ongoing medical monitoring but wish to still live at home and have a stable living environment. These treatment programs usually meet at a treatment center for 7 to 8 hours during the day, then you return home at night.
Outpatient treatment – Not a live-in treatment program, these outpatient programs can be scheduled around work or school. You're treated during the day or evening but don't stay overnight. The major focus is relapse prevention.
Sober living communities – Living in a sober house normally follows an intensive treatment program such as residential treatment. You live with other recovering addicts in a safe, supportive, and drug-free environment. Sober living facilities are useful if you have nowhere to go or you're worried that returning home too soon will lead to relapse.
Tips for finding the best drug addiction treatment for you
Remember that no treatment works for everyone. Everyone's needs are different. Whether you have a problem with illegal or prescription drugs, addiction treatment should be customized to your unique situation. It's important that you find a program that feels right.
Treatment should address more than just your drug abuse. Addiction affects your whole life, including your relationships, career, health, and psychological well-being. Treatment success depends on developing a new way of living and addressing the reasons why you turned to drugs in the first place. For example, your drug dependency may have developed from a desire to manage pain or to cope with stress, in which case you'll need to find a healthier way to relieve pain or to handle stressful situations.
Commitment and follow-through are key. Drug addiction treatment is not a quick and easy process. In general, the longer and more intense the drug use, the longer and more intense the treatment you'll need. And in all cases, long-term follow-up care is crucial to recovery.
There are many places to turn for help. Not everybody requires medically supervised detox or an extended stint in rehab. The care you need depends on a variety of factors, including your age, drug-use history, medical or psychiatric conditions. In addition to doctors and psychologists, many clergy members, social workers, and counselors offer addiction treatment services.
Seek treatment for any mental health problems simultaneously. As you seek help for drug addiction, it’s also important to get treatment for any other medical or psychological issues you’re experiencing. Your best chance of recovery is by getting combined mental health and addiction treatment from the same treatment provider or team.
Find support for your addiction recovery
Don't try to go it alone—reach out for support. Whatever treatment approach you choose, having positive influences and a solid support system is essential. The more people you can turn to for encouragement, guidance, and a listening ear, the better your chances for recovery.
Lean on close friends and family. Having the support of friends and family members is an invaluable asset in recovery. If you're reluctant to turn to your loved ones because you've let them down before, consider going to relationship counseling or family therapy.
Build a sober social network. If your previous social life revolved around drugs, you may need to make some new connections. It's important to have sober friends who will support your recovery. Try taking a class, joining a church or a civic group, volunteering, or attending events in your community.
Consider moving into a sober living home. Sober living homes provide a safe, supportive place to live while you're recovering from drug addiction. They are a good option if you don't have a stable home or a drug-free living environment.
Make meetings a priority. Join a 12-step recovery support group, such as Narcotics Anonymous (NA), and attend meetings regularly. Spending time with people who understand exactly what you're going through can be very healing. You can also benefit from the shared experiences of the group members and learn what others have done to stay sober.
[Read: Support Groups: Types, Benefits, and What to Expect]
Learn healthy ways to cope with stress
After addressing your immediate problems with addiction and starting treatment, you'll still have to face the problems that led to your drug abuse. Did you start using to numb painful emotions, calm yourself after an argument, unwind after a bad day, or forget about your problems?
Once you're sober, the negative feelings that you dampened with drugs will resurface. For treatment to be successful, you'll first need to resolve your underlying issues.
Once you have resolved your underlying issues, you will, at times, continue to experience stress, loneliness, frustration, anger, shame, anxiety, and hopelessness. These emotions are all a normal part of life. Finding ways to address these feelings as they arise is an essential component to your treatment and recovery.
There are healthier ways to keep your stress level in check. You can learn to manage your problems without falling back on your addiction. When you're confident in your ability to quickly de-stress, facing strong feelings isn't as intimidating or overwhelming.
Quickly relieve stress without drugs
Different quick stress relief strategies work better for some people than others. The key is to find the one that works best for you.
Movement. A brisk walk around the block can be enough to relieve stress. Yoga and meditation are also excellent ways to bust stress and find balance.
Step outside and savor the warm sun and fresh air. Enjoy a beautiful view or landscape.
Play with your dog or cat. Enjoy the relaxing touch of your pet's fur.
Experiment with your sense of smell. Breathe in the scent of fresh flowers or coffee beans, or savor a scent that reminds you of a favorite vacation, such as sunscreen or a seashell.
Close your eyes and picture a peaceful place. Think of a sandy beach, or a fond memory, such as your child's first steps or time spent with friends.
Pamper yourself. Make yourself a steaming cup of tea, give yourself a neck or shoulder massage. Soak in a hot bath or shower.
Keep drug triggers and cravings in check
Your recovery doesn't end at getting sober. Your brain still needs time to recover and rebuild connections that changed while you were addicted. During this rebuild, drug cravings can be intense. You can support your continued recovery by avoiding people, places, and situations that trigger your urge to use:
Step away from your friends who use. Don't hang out with friends who are still doing drugs. Surround yourself with people who support your sobriety, not those who tempt you to slip back into old, destructive habits.
Avoid bars and clubs. Even if you don't have a problem with alcohol, drinking lowers inhibitions and impairs judgment, which can easily lead to a relapse. Drugs are often readily available and the temptation to use can be overpowering. Also avoid any other environments and situations that you associate with drug use.
Be upfront about your history of drug use when seeking medical treatment. If you need a medical or dental procedure done, be upfront and find a provider who will work with you in either prescribing alternatives or the absolute minimum medication necessary. You should never feel ashamed or humiliated about previous drug use or be denied medication for pain; if that happens, find another provider.
Use caution with prescription drugs. If you were addicted to a prescription drug, such as an opioid painkiller, you may need to talk to your doctor about finding alternate ways to manage pain. Regardless of the drug you experienced problems with, it's important to stay away from prescription drugs with the potential for abuse or use only when necessary and with extreme caution. Drugs with a high abuse potential include painkillers, sleeping pills, and anti-anxiety medication.
Coping with drug cravings
Sometimes craving cannot be avoided, and it is necessary to find a way to cope:
Get involved in a distracting activity. Read, see friends, go to a movie, immerse yourself in a hobby, hike, or exercise. Once you're interested in something else, you'll find the urges go away.
Talk it through. Talk to friends or family members about craving when it occurs. Talking can be very helpful in pinpointing the source of the craving. Also, talking about craving often helps to discharge and relieve the feeling and will help restore honesty in your relationship. Craving is nothing to feel bad about.
Challenge and change your thoughts. When experiencing a craving, many people have a tendency to remember only the positive effects of the drug and forget the negative consequences. Therefore, you may find it helpful to remind yourself that you really won't feel better if you use and that you stand to lose a lot. Sometimes it is helpful to have these consequences listed on a small card that you keep with you.
Urge surf. Many people try to cope with their urges by toughing it out. But some cravings are too strong to ignore. When this happens, it can be useful to stay with the urge until it passes. This technique is called urge surfing. Imagine yourself as a surfer who will ride the wave of your drug craving, staying on top of it until it crests, breaks, and turns into less powerful, foamy surf. When you ride out the craving, without trying to battle, judge, or ignore it, you'll see that it passes more quickly than you'd think.
The three basic steps of urge surfing:
- Notice how you’re experience the craving. Sit in a comfortable chair with your feet flat on the floor and your hands in a relaxed position. Take a few deep breaths and focus your attention on your body. Notice where in your body you experience the craving or urge and what the sensations feel like. Verbalize what you’re experiencing. For example, you could tell yourself: “My craving is in my mouth and nose and in my stomach.”
- Focus on one area where you’re experiencing the craving. What are the sensations in that area? Describe them to yourself. For example, perhaps you feel hot, cold, tingly, or numb? Maybe your muscles are tense? How large an area is involved? Notice if the sensations change as you focus on them. “My mouth feels dry. There is a numbness in my lips. When I swallow, I can imagine the feeling of using.”
- Repeat by focusing on each part of your body that experiences the urge. Describe to yourself how the sensations change, how the urge comes and goes. Many people notice that after a few minutes of urge surfing, their craving has disappeared. The purpose of this exercise, however, is not to make the urge go away but to experience it in a new way. If you regularly practice urge surfing, you’ll become more familiar with your cravings and find it easier to ride them out until they go away naturally.
Build a meaningful drug-free life
You can support your drug treatment and protect yourself from relapse by having activities and interests that provide meaning to your life. It's important to be involved in things that you enjoy, that make you feel needed, and add meaning to your life. When your life is filled with rewarding activities and a sense of purpose, your addiction will lose its appeal.
Pick up an old hobby or try a new one. Do things that challenge your creativity and spark your imagination—something you've always wanted to try. Learn a musical instrument, a foreign language, or try a new sport.
Adopt a pet. Yes, pets are a responsibility, but caring for an animal makes you feel loved and needed. Pets can also get you out of the house for exercise.
Spend time in nature. Take a scenic hike, go fishing or camping, or enjoy regular walks in a park.
Enjoy the arts. Visit a museum, go to a concert or a play, take an art class or write a memoir.
Get involved in your community. Replace your addiction with drug-free groups and activities. Volunteer, become active in your church or faith community, or join a local club or neighborhood group.
Set meaningful goals. Having goals to work toward and something to look forward to can be powerful antidotes to drug addiction. It doesn't matter what the goals are, just that they are important to you.
Look after your health. Regular exercise, adequate sleep, and healthy eating habits help you keep your energy levels up and your stress levels down. The more you can stay healthy and feel good, the easier it will be to stay sober.
Don't let relapse keep you down
Relapse is a common part of the recovery process from drug addiction. While relapse is frustrating and discouraging, it can be an opportunity to learn from your mistakes, identify additional triggers, and correct your treatment course.
What causes relapse?
Different “triggers” can put you at risk of relapsing into old patterns of substance use. While specific causes of relapse differ from person to person, some common triggers include:
- Negative emotional state (such as stress, sadness, anger, or trauma)
- Positive emotional state (feeling happy and wanting to feel even better, such as having a good time with friends)
- Physical discomfort (such as pain or withdrawal symptoms)
- Trying to test your personal control (“I can use just once” or “have just one pill”)
- Strong temptation or urge (craving to use)
- Conflict (such as an argument with your spouse or partner)
- Social pressure (being in a situation where it seems everyone else is using)
The important thing to remember is that relapse doesn't mean drug treatment failure. Don't give up. Call your sponsor, talk to your therapist, go to a meeting, or schedule an appointment with your doctor. When you're sober again and out of danger, look at what triggered the relapse, what went wrong, and what you could have done differently. You can choose to get back on the path to recovery and use the experience to strengthen your commitment.
Authors: Melinda Smith, M.A., Lawrence Robinson, and Jeanne Segal, Ph.D.
Friedmann, P. D., Saitz, R., & Samet, J. H. (1998). Management of Adults Recovering From Alcohol or Other Drug ProblemsRelapse Prevention in Primary Care. JAMA, 279(15), 1227–1231. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.279.15.1227
O’Brien, Charles P. “Evidence-Based Treatments of Addiction.” FOCUS 9, no. 1 (January 1, 2011): 107–17. https://doi.org/10.1176/foc.9.1.foc107
Pettersen, H., Landheim, A., Skeie, I., Biong, S., Brodahl, M., Oute, J., & Davidson, L. (2019). How Social Relationships Influence Substance Use Disorder Recovery: A Collaborative Narrative Study. Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment, 13, 1178221819833379. https://doi.org/10.1177/1178221819833379
Santucci, Karen. “Psychiatric Disease and Drug Abuse.” Current Opinion in Pediatrics 24, no. 2 (April 2012): 233–37. https://doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0b013e3283504fbfSee AlsoJames Caan, who played Sonny Corleone in ‘The Godfather,’ dies at 82Gold street nyc apartmentsSingapore Poker Laws - Poker Options for Residents Here? PokerLaws.OrgThe Updated Marketing Strategy For Game Stores in 2019 - Manaverse Saga
Kelly, Thomas M., and Dennis C. Daley. “Integrated Treatment of Substance Use and Psychiatric Disorders.” Social Work in Public Health 28, no. 3–4 (2013): 388–406. https://doi.org/10.1080/19371918.2013.774673
Magill, Molly, and Lara A. Ray. “Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment with Adult Alcohol and Illicit Drug Users: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.” Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 70, no. 4 (July 2009): 516–27. https://doi.org/10.15288/jsad.2009.70.516
Grant, Bridget F., Frederick S. Stinson, Deborah A. Dawson, S. Patricia Chou, Mary C. Dufour, Wilson Compton, Roger P. Pickering, and Kenneth Kaplan. “Prevalence and Co-Occurrence of Substance Use Disorders and Independent Mood and Anxiety Disorders: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.” Archives of General Psychiatry 61, no. 8 (August 2004): 807–16. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.61.8.807
Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders. (2013). In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. American Psychiatric Association. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425787.x16_Substance_Related_Disorders(Video) Overcoming Drug Addiction - a Help guide
Get more help
Step by Step Guides to Finding Treatment for Drug Use Disorders (PDF) – Guides for adults, teens, or those helping someone addicted to drugs. (National Institute on Drug Abuse)
Effective Treatments for Opioid Addiction – Medications used in the treatment of opioid addiction. (National Institute on Drug Abuse)
What is Substance Abuse Treatment? A Booklet for Families (PDF) – Learn about treatment options and what you can do. (SAMHSA)
Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment (PDF) – Effective treatment of substance abuse and addiction. (National Institute on Drug Abuse)
How can prescription drug addiction be treated? – Treatment options for prescription drug addiction including addiction to opioid painkillers. (National Institute on Drug Abuse)
Support organizations, professional help
Most of these 12-step programs have worldwide chapters:
Professional help for drug treatment and recovery
In the U.S.: Use the Substance Abuse Treatment Facility Locator, call the SAMHSA helpline at 1-800-662-4357, Get One-on-One Help to Address Your Child’s Substance Use, or call the Partnership for Drug-Free Kids helpline at 1-855-378-4373.
Canada: Finding Quality Addiction Care (Canadian Centre on Substance Use and Addiction)
Australia: Finddrug and alcohol services in your State/Territory(Department of Health & Aging).
Last updated: September 27, 2022
Research has shown that the drugs most commonly abused by humans (including opiates, alcohol, nicotine, amphetamines, and cocaine) create a neurochemical reaction that significantly increases the amount of dopamine that is released by neurons in the brain's reward center.How does addiction affect the brain? ›
In a person who becomes addicted, brain receptors become overwhelmed. The brain responds by producing less dopamine or eliminating dopamine receptors—an adaptation similar to turning the volume down on a loudspeaker when noise becomes too loud.What are nine lifestyle diseases caused by substance abuse? ›
- Cardiovascular disease.
- Hepatitis B and C.
- Lung disease.
- Mental disorders.
In certain cases, using recreational drugs can lead to long-term mental health problems. For example, taking they might lead to depression or schizophrenia. Or they may cause similar feelings to those you already experience as part of a mental health problem.What is the fastest way to increase dopamine? ›
- Avoid overindulging in alcohol or recreational drug use. ...
- Maintaining a healthy diet can increase dopamine levels. ...
- Avoid junk food. ...
- Exercise regularly to increase dopamine. ...
- Spend time outside. ...
- Practice healthy sleep habits. ...
- Engage in healthy, pleasurable activities. ...
- Meditate or practice yoga.
- Create exciting daily routines. Incorporate fun activities into your daily routine, even if they are mindless activities. ...
- Focus on perfecting your sleep schedule. ...
- Improve your diet. ...
- Exercise. ...
- Practice mindfulness. ...
- Listen to music.
A separate study published by the CDC and the National Institute on Drug Abuse in 2020 found 3 out of 4 people who experience addiction eventually recover. "So that's huge, you know, 75%," Kelly said.Which drugs can cause brain damage? ›
- 10 Dangerous Drugs:
- That attack your Brain and. Body.
Getting enough sleep, exercising, listening to music, meditating, and spending time in the sun can all boost dopamine levels. Overall, a balanced diet and lifestyle can go a long way in increasing your body's natural production of dopamine and helping your brain function at its best.What are the solutions to drug abuse? ›
- Understand how substance abuse develops. ...
- Avoid Temptation and Peer Pressure. ...
- Seek help for mental illness. ...
- Examine the risk factors. ...
- Keep a well-balanced life.
Side effects of drug addiction may include:
Nausea and abdominal pain, which can also lead to changes in appetite and weight loss. Increased strain on the liver, which puts the person at risk of significant liver damage or liver failure. Seizures, stroke, mental confusion and brain damage. Lung disease.
- Family history of addiction. Drug addiction is more common in some families and likely involves an increased risk based on genes. ...
- Mental health disorder. ...
- Peer pressure. ...
- Lack of family involvement. ...
- Early use. ...
- Taking a highly addictive drug.
Crystal meth releases more dopamine in the brain compared to any other drug. Dopamine is a brain neurotransmitter that serves a number of functions, including the feeling of pleasure.What increases dopamine the most? ›
Getting enough sleep, exercising, listening to music, meditating, and spending time in the sun can all boost dopamine levels. Overall, a balanced diet and lifestyle can go a long way in increasing your body's natural production of dopamine and helping your brain function at its best.What drug increases dopamine and serotonin? ›
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)
MAOIs are a class of antidepressants believed to increase levels of norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine (another neurotransmitter) in the brain. They are effective for the treatment of the major depressive disorder, panic disorder, and other anxiety disorders.
Dopamine is most notably involved in helping us feel pleasure as part of the brain's reward system. Sex, shopping, smelling cookies baking in the oven — all these things can trigger dopamine release, or a "dopamine rush." This feel-good neurotransmitter is also involved in reinforcement.